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The earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people.

"Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. The principal language groups were Darug, Guringai, and Dharawal.

Under the reign of Queen Victoria federation of the six colonies occurred on 1 January 1901.

The municipal council of Sydney was incorporated in 1842 and became Australia's first city.

Its natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, and the Royal Botanic Garden.

Conditions in the colony were not conducive to the development of a thriving new metropolis, but the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of maritime trade (such as wool) helped to lessen the burden of isolation.

Roads, bridges, wharves, and public buildings were constructed using convict labour and by 1822 the town had banks, markets, and well-established thoroughfares.

That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776.

Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years earlier.Macquarie did make the most of less than ideal circumstances.His first task was to restore order after the Rum Rebellion of 1808 against the previous Governor.Between 17 about 4,300 convicts were landed at Sydney.The colony was not founded on the principles of freedom and prosperity.He spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain.

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