In that era, the ancestors of the modern-day Kalanga moved into what is now the north-eastern areas of the country.These proto-Kalanga were closely connected to states in Zimbabwe as well as to the Mapungubwe state.
The arrival of the ancestors of the Tswana-speakers who came to control the region has yet to be dated precisely.
Members of the Bakwena, a chieftaincy under a legendary leader named Kgabo II, made their way into the southern Kalahari by AD 1500, at the latest, and his people drove the Bakgalagadi inhabitants west into the desert.
Archaeological digs have shown that hominids have lived in Botswana for around two million years.
Stone tools and fauna remains have shows that all areas of the country were inhabited at least 400,000 years ago.
The original inhabitants of southern Africa were the Bushmen (San) and Khoi peoples.
Both speak Khoisan languages and hunted, gathered, and traded over long distances.
When cattle were first introduced about 2000 years ago into southern Africa, pastoralism became a major feature of the economy, since the region had large grasslands free of tsetse fly.
It is unclear when Bantu-speaking peoples first moved into the country from the north, although AD 600 seems to be a consensus estimate.
It is bordered by South Africa to the south and southeast, Namibia to the west and north, and Zimbabwe to the northeast.